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Table of Contents



Preface

Acknowledgments

Contributors

Chapter 1: Neuro-Ophthalmologic History and Neurologic Examination

Introduction

Purpose of the History and Examination

Answering the Patient's Concerns

History of the Present Illness

NonocularAspects of the Physical Examination

Chapter 2: Papilledema

Pathophysiology Fundus Signs of Papilledema

Fundus Signs of Papilledema

Nonfundus Signs of Papilledema

Pseudopapilledema

Causes of Papilledema and Disc Edema

Fluorescent Test

Chapter 3: Pupillary Abnormalities

Function and Anatomy of the Pupil Anatomy

Anatomy

Pupillary Size and Physiology

Normal Pupillary Reflexes

Irregularity of the Pupil

General Examination Techniques

Tonic Pupil

Argyll Robertson Pupil

Fixed Pupil

Afferent Pupillary Defect

Third Cranial Nerve Paralysis

Horner Syndrome

Heterochromia

Chapter 4: Evaluation of Orbital Disease

History Taking and Physical Examination

Imaging of the Orbit and Skull

CT Contrast Agents

Patient Cooperation

Indications for CT Scan

Indications for MRI

Contraindications for CT and MRI

Orbital or Periorbital Lesions That Do Not Require Imaging Studies

Orbital Biopsy

Histopathology

Immunocytochemistry

Surface Markers

Cytoplasmic Markers

Intermediate Filament Proteins

Tumor and Organ Specific Antigens

Lymphoid Antigens

Electron Microscopy

Flow Cytometry

Clinical Understanding of Orbital Disease

Case Studies

Chapter 5: Ptosis

Examination Techniques Pseudoptosis-Types and Causes

Pseudoptosis-Types and Causes

True Ptosis

Synkinetic Ptosis

Cerebral Ptosis

Tests for Ocular Myasthenia Gravis

Treatment of Ptosis

Treatment of Lid Retraction

Chapter 6: Diplopia

Introduction

Mechanism of Normal Binocular Vision and Diplopia

Evaluation of the Diplopic Patient

Case Studies

Prism Therapy

Neuropathic Causes

Myopathic Causes

Chapter 7: Neuro-Otology

Vestibular Disorders

Auditory Disorders

Chapter 8: Noninvasive Imaging Techniques

Ultrasound

Positron Emission Tomography

Nuclear Medicine Techniques in Neuro Ophthalmology

Chapter 9: Imaging of the Orbit and of the Visual Pathways

Orbital Masses

Visual Pathways

Chapter 10: Facial Nerve Disorders

Anatomy

Clinical Findings

Hyperkinectic Facial Nerve Disorders-Abnormal Eyelid and Facial Movements

Chapter 11: Electrodiagnosis

Electrical Changes Recordable from the Eye

Electrical Changes Recordable from the Brain: the Visually Evoked Potential

Clinical Application of Electrodiagnostic Tests of Visual System

Summary

Indications for Electrophysiologic Tests on the Eye

Case Studies

Chapter 12: Unexplained Vision Loss: Macula or Media?

Unexplained Vision Loss from Ocular Media Abnormalities

Unexplained Vision Loss from Macular Disease

Conclusion

Chapter 13: Blurred Vision

Evaluation of the Symptom

Hereditary Causes

Demyeunating Disease Causes

Ischemic Causes

Hematologic and Vascular Causes

Inflammatory Causes

Tumorous Causes

Toxic Causes

Other Miscellaneous Causes

Opacities of the Media

Refractive Errors

Chapter 14: Headache

Anatomy and Physiology of Head Pain

Differential Diagnosis of Head Pain

Headache Disorders Presenting in the Emergency Room

Headaches Presenting in the Emergency or Ambulatory Setting

Headaches Presenting in the Ambulatory Setting

Treatment of Headaches

Conclusion

Chapter 15: Gaze Abnormalities

Normal Gaze Terminology, Structures, and Pathways

Clinical Examination

Abnormal Vertical Gase Cunical Correlators

Abnormal Horizontal Gaze: Clinical Correlations

Vergence Abnormalities: Clinical Correlations

Miscellaneous Gaze Disorders

Case Studies

Chapter 16: Nystagmus and Related Ocular Oscillations

Definition of Terms and Mechanisms

Clinical Evaluation

Methods for Inducing Nystagmus

Anatomically Nonspecific Nystagmus

Anatomically Specific Nystagmus and Rhythmic Oscillations

Miscellaneous Nystagmus

Eye Movements in Coma

Medical Treatment of Nystagmus

Case Studies

Chapter 17: Visual Field Defects

Examination Techniques

Essentials of Automated Perimetry

Topical Diagnosis

Color Defects

Positive Perversion of the Visual System

Functional Visual Loss