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Retina : SHEATHING OF RETINAL VEINS

ANATOMIC CLASSIFICATION OF MACULAR DISEASES  |  BILATERAL MACULAR LESIONS  |  PSEUDOMACULAR EDEMA  |  MACULAR EDEMA  |  ABSENCE OF FOVEAL REFLEX  |  MACULAR PUCKER  |  MACULAR EXUDATES AND HEMORRHAGES  |  MACULAR STAR OR STELLATE RETINOPATHY  |  RETINOCILIARY VEIN  |  CHERRY-RED SPOT IN MACULA  |  MACULAR HEMORRHAGE  |  PARAFOVEAL TELANGIECTASIA  |  MICROHEMORRHAGIC MACULOPATHY  |  MACULAR CYST  |  MACULAR HOLE  |  MACULAR COLOBOMA  |  ELEVATED MACULAR LESION  |  HETEROTOPIA OF THE MACULA  |  WHITE OR YELLOW FLAT MACULAR LESION AND PIGMENTARY CHANGE  |  PIGMENTARY CHANGES IN MACULA  |  BULL'S-EYE MACULAR LESION  |  MACULAR WISPS AND FOVEOLAR SPLINTER  |  MACULAR HYPOPLASIA  |  PREMACULAR SUB HYALOID HEMORRHAGE  |  RETINAL VASCULAR TORTUOSITY  |  VENOUS BEADING  |  OPHTHALMODYNAMOMETRY  |  PULSATION OF RETINAL ARTERIOLE (HIGH PULSE PRESSURE)  |  RETINAL ARTERY OCCLUSION  |  LOCALIZED ARTERIAL NARROWING  |  GENERALIZED ARTERIAL NARROWING  |  PERIARTERITIS RETINALIS SEGMENTALIS  |  FROSTED-BRANCH ANGITIS  |  SHEATHING OF RETINAL VEINS  |  ABSENT VENOUS PULSATIONS  |  DILATED RETINAL VEINS  |  TORTUOSITY OF RETINAL VEINS AND HYPOPLASIA OF OPTIC NERVES  |  CENTRAL RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION  |  DILATED RETINAL VEINS AND RETINAL HEMORRHAGES  |  RETINAL HEMORRHAGES  |  LARGE HEMORRHAGES IN THE FUNDUS OF AN INFANT OR YOUNG CHILD  |  RETINOVITREAL HEMORRHAGE IN A YOUNG ADULT  |  RETINAL HEMORRHAGE WITH CENTRAL WHITE SPOT (ROTH SPOT)  |  MICROANEURYSMS OF RETINA  |  RETINAL ARTERIOVENOUS SHUNT AT THE ARTERIOVENOUS CROSSING  |  MACROANEURYSMS OF RETINAL ARTERIES  |  RETINAL NEOVASCULARIZATION  |  PREDISPOSITION TO RHEGMATOGENOUS RETINAL DETACHMENT  |  RETINAL DETACHMENT  |  SYNDROMES AND DISEASES ASSOCIATED WITH RETINAL DETACHMENT  |  RETINAL FOLDS  |  COTTON-WOOL SPOTS  |  HARD EXUDATES  |  RETINAL EXUDATE AND HEMORRHAGE  |  RETINITIS OR PSEUDORETINITIS PIGMENTOSA  |  LESIONS CONFUSED WITH RETINOBLASTOMA  |  SINGLE WHITE LESION OF RETINA  |  PALE FUNDUS LESIONS  |  MEDULLATED NERVE FIBERS  |  PIGMENTED FUNDUS LESIONS  |  CHOLESTEROL EMBOLI OF RETINA (HOLLENHORST PLAQUES)  |  RETINAL MICROEMBOLI  |  LIPEMIA RETINALIS  |  HEMORRHAGIC OR SEROUS EXUDATES BENEATH PIGMENT EPITHELIUM  |  RETINAL VASCULAR TUMORS AND ANGIOMATOSIS RETINAE SYNDROMES  |  RETINAL "SEA-FANS"  |  RETINAL VESSELS DISPLACED TEMPORALLY  |  RETINAL VESSELS DISPLACED NASALLY  |  PERIPHERAL FUNDUS LESIONS  |  RETINAL DISEASE ASSOCIATED WITH CORNEAL PROBLEMS  |  RETINAL LESIONS ASSOCIATED WITH DEAFNESS  |  SUBRETINAL FIBROSIS  |  EPIRETINAL MEMBRANES  |  LINEAR STREAKS PATTERN IN FUNDUS  |  YELLOW -ORANGE LESIONS OF SUBRETINAL FUNDUS  |  TALC RETINOPATHY-DRUG ADDICTS WHO INJECT DRUGS  |  CRYSTALLINE RETINOPATHY  |  PULFRICH STEREO-ILLUSION PHENOMENON  |  PARAFOVEAL TELANGIECTASIA  |  HEREDITARY PEDIATRIC RETINAL DEGENERATIONS  |  RETICULAR PATTERN OF DARK LINES IN FUNDUS  |  RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIAL TEARS  |  RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIAL FOLDS  |  MIZUO PHENOMENON  |  WHITE-DOT FOVEA

In this condition, white or gray envelopes are around veins; retinal or vitreous hemorrhage and exudates may be present.

1. Disc only-developmental
2. Disc and retina-papillitis or papilledema
3. Peripheral sheathing

 *A. Acute retinal necrosis
 B. Amebiasis
 C. Behçet disease (dermatostomatoophthalmic syndrome)
 D. Brucellosis-rare, tortuosity and sheathing of veins, vitreous haze, retinal  hemorrhages
 E. Candidiasis
 F. Coccidioidomycosis
 G. Eales disease (periphlebitis)
 H. Diabetes mellitus
 I. Filariasis-hemorrhages and exudates
 J. Hypertension
 K. Infectious mononucleosis-peripheral or central perivascular involvement,  venous engorgement and sheathing associated with retinal hemorrhages
 L. Lupus erythematosus
 M. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
 N. Onchocerciasis syndrome (river blindness)
 O. Rickettsial infections-peripheral or central perivascular involvement, venous  engorgement and sheathing associated with retinal hemorrhages
 *P. Sarcoidosis
 Q. Septicemia and bacteremia-rare, venous engorgement, usually with multiple  hemorrhages and focal sheathing
 R. Sickle cell disease
 S. Syphilis (secondary) (acquired lues)
 T. Tuberculin or bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination-rare. sectorial, or  generalized changes
 U. Viral infections, including the following:
  (1) Cytomegalovirus retinitis
  (2) Herpes simplex (likely responsible for acute retinal necrosis)
  (3) Herpes zoster ophthalmicus
  (4) Influenza
  (5) Rift Valley fever

4. Peripheral sheathing without secondary retinopathy-multiple sclerosis
5. Wide and usually dense sheathing of dilated and tortuous veins, suggestive of myelogenous leukemia

Brown S. et al. Intraocular lymphoma presenting as retinal vasculitis Surv Ophthalmol 1994;39:138-140.

George RK, et al. Primary retinal vasculitis. Opthalmology 1996:103:384-389.

Kohno T, et al. Ocular manifestations of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Ophthalmology 1993; 100:1794-1799.

Roy FH. Ocular syndromes and systemic diseases. 3rd ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2002.