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Retina -  PIGMENTARY CHANGES IN MACULA Lecture 20 of 85  NEXT»

1. Hereditary macular degeneration without cerebral or other disease

 A Best disease (vitelliform macular dystrophy)
 B. Stargardt disease (juvenile flavimaculatus)
 C. Behr syndrome (optic atrophy-ataxia syndrome)

*2. Retinitis pigmentosa
3. Secondary pigmentary retinopathy following trauma or inflammation (see p. 497)
*4. Age-related macular degeneration
5. Metabolic disease associated with pigmentary retinopathy

 A. Abetalipoproteinemia (Bassen-Kornzweig syndrome)
 B. Alpha-lipoprotein deficiency (Tangier syndrome)
 C. Ceroid lipofuscinosis
  (1) Batten-Mayou syndrome
  (2) Dollinger-Bielschowsky syndrome, late infantile (Bielschowsky-   Jansky disease)
  (3) Infantile type of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis
 D. Hepatic disease
 E. Refsum disease (phytanic acid storage disease)
 F. Tay-Sachs syndrome (gangliosidosis GM2-type I)
 G. Vitamin A
 H. MPS
  (1) Hunter syndrome (MPS II)
  (2) Hurler syndrome (MPS I-H)
  (3) Sanfilippo-Good syndrome (MPS III)
  (4) Scheie syndrome (MPS I-S)

*6. Drugs, including the following:

acetophenazine
amiodarone (?)
amodiaquine
azathioprine
benzatropine (?)
biperiden (?)
butaperazine
carbamazepine
carphenazine
cefaclor
cefadroxil
cefamandole
cefazolin
cefonicid
cefoperazone
ceforanide
cefotaxime
cefotetan
cefoxitin
cefsulodin
ceftazidime
ceftriaxone
cefuroxime
cephalexin
cephaloridine
cephalothin
cephapirin
cephradine
chloramphenicol
chloroquine
chlorphenoxamine (?)
chlorpromazine
chlorprothixene
cisplatin
clofazimine
clonidine (?)
cobalt (?)
cycrimine (?)
deferoxamine
diethazine
diethylcarbamazine
ethambutol (?)
ethopropazine
fluphenazine
hydroxychloroquine
indomethacin (?)
ketoprofen (?)
mesoridazine
methdilazine
methotrexate
methotrimeprazine
minoxidil (?)
mitotane
moxalactam
naproxen
penicillamine
perazine
pericyazine
perphenazine
piperacetazine
prazosin (?)
prochlorperazine
procyclidine (?)
promazine
promethazine
propiomazine
quinacrine (?)
quinine
sulindac (?)
tamoxifen
thiethylperazine
thiopropazate
thioproperazine
thioridazine
thiothixene
trifluoperazine
triflupromazine
trihexyphenidyl (?)
trimeprazine
 

7. Inflammation

 *A. Toxoplasmosis
 B. Trauma

8. Multifocal necrotizing encephalopathy
9. Dawson disease (subacute sclerosing panencephalitis)
10. Dialinas-Amalric syndrome (deaf mutism-retinal degeneration syndrome)
11. Oculodental syndrome (Peter syndrome)
12. Sorsby syndrome (hereditary macular coloboma syndrome)

Fishman GA, et al. X-linked recessive retinitis pigmentosa. Arch Ophthalmol 1986; 104:1329-1335.

Fraunfelder FT, Fraunfelder FW. Drug-induced ocular side effects. Woburn, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2001.

Roy FH. Ocular syndromes and systemic diseases. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2002.


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